1.                  What different results does the ED 2000 make from magnetic products?


The ED 2000 uses a square wave current to set up an oscillating electric field within the solenoid that we have formed on the condenser supply line.  As the charged mineral ions come into contact they collide and precipitate into sub-micron crystals. These crystals grow into larger crystals and will not adhere to the condenser tubes.  This collision and subsequent precipitation is caused by the oscillating electric field forcing the charged mineral ions to constantly change direction (the positive ions align themselves with the direction of the electric field and the negative ions in the opposite direction), collide and come out of solution.


The magnetic systems attempt to create the same agitation.  They use a north/south polarity and are completely dependent on the velocity (Lorenz Force) to cause the collision and subsequent agitation.  High velocity is very important to the success of the magnetic systems and may pose a challenge to successful treatment because in many cases, the velocity is not great enough to cause the collision.


It is well know that the magnetic systems also attract magnetite in the fluid and scaling of the magnetite is formed locally at the installation site.  In time this may cause failure because of the reduction of the flow rate in these types of systems.


2.                  Does the ED 2000 work on boilers?


All of our research has been in treating cooling systems and treating both shell and tube and plate and frame heat exchangers.  The ED 2000 does have a use in boiler treatment but there are limitations.  The process creates a crystal from the dissolved mineral ions.  These crystals have a specific gravity of 2.74 and may settle as sludge at low points in a cooling or heating system.  A low point is when velocity is less than 3 feet per second. In a cooing system that would possibly be the tower sump, but not the condenser.  Mechanical filtration or a weekly purge or bottom blowdown of the sump would solve this problem.

In boiler treatment the discharge of the crystals formed by the electronic precipitation must be considered.


The ED 2000 would be effective in a fire tube boiler but should not be used in a water tube boiler due to safety concerns.  The ED 2000 should only be used as an enhancement to the existing water treatment program (to eliminate shell side fouling) and not as a replacement.






3.                  Does the ED 2000 oscillating electric field through cast iron pipes to the fluid 100% effectively?



Yes.  The ED 2000 system is effective on both ferrous and non-ferrous pipes. Most applications of the ED 2000 are on cast iron pipes, where the treatment has worked 100%.




4.                  Do large motors or pumps negatively impact the performance?


No, they do not negatively impact the performance of the ED 2000 system

It is best to install a coil downstream from the pump and before each heat transfer site.  If there is fouling present in the pump (not usually the case in conventional cooling systems) we would install a coil on both the suction and discharge sides of the pump.


5.                  Does the ED 2000 molecular agitation 100% effective at turbulent-flow fluid?




6.                  Except providing power, does the ED 2000 panel have another function?


There is an alarm light indicator and a power indicator light.


7.                  Has a limit been set to flow-speed while using the ED 2000?


There is a minimum velocity required for the fluid to pass through the solenoid coil but there is no maximum.  The minimum is 0.3 m/s or 1 ft/s.


8.                  How does the ED 2000 protect our cooling tower?


The ED 2000 can protect any heat transfer equipment within the cooling system. That could be the condenser, a plate and frame heat exchanger or the cooling tower.  If the ED 2000 is installed as an enhancement to the chiller only, one coil is placed on the condenser water supply line.  This is the case if there is a water treatment program in place (with a scale inhibitor).


If the ED 2000 system is used to protect the entire cooling system as the only scale inhibitor then a coil must be place on the condenser supply line, the tower supply line to the tower and the make-up line to the tower. Three coils on the entire cooling system.  You may be able to use one control unit with these three coils to keep the cost down.


9.         Does flow velocity impact performance?


There is no maximum flow velocity. The technology is limited when there is very little flow and a high heat flux such as a domestic hot water electric heater.  The industrial heat exchangers are not a concern as there is good flow and a much lower heat flux (Btu’s/cm).


10.       How will the ED treatment affect existing water treatment? 


The treatment will not affect the biocides or inhibitors currently being used.  The process creates a mechanical agitation of the mineral ions by using an oscillating electric field to cause precipitation.   A different precipitation would also occur if you introduced heat, pH change or a pressure change.  Sub micron size crystals are formed at the solenoid coil and will grow as they move downstream. In recirculating systems they will settle as sludge at the lowest point and then be removed through a blowdown.